Goal 12: Sustainable consumption and production

Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

"Achieve sustainable development"

In order to achieve sustainable development, adjustments are required in many places, including a change in people’s consumption and production patterns. In many ways, the consumption and production that exists today has a negative impact on sustainable development, both environmentally and socially. While a large part of the world’s population suffers from hunger and nutritional deficiencies, about a third of all food produced is disposed of . Much of the consumption and production that occurs today is unsustainable and consumes more of the world’s resources than we can afford to achieve sustainable development. In addition, the consequences of overconsumption and production usually affect the poorer population who historically have not accounted for this consumption.

Future Earth is working to spread awareness about how sustainable consumption and production are going, how our consumption choices in Sweden affect the environment and people in other countries, and how food production can become more sustainable. In Asia and Latin America, much of Future Earth’s projects focus on food sovereignty, agroecology and rural development, where, among other things, they work with small farmers. In Sweden, the work follows the same line and it is about informing about precisely food production, food sovereignty and how to make conscious and sustainable choices when it comes to food. The Learn by South Tour is a way in which this information is disseminated, network organizations from Asia and Latin America are invited to lecture on their experiences and knowledge of agriculture and food sovereignty. This exchange creates an increased understanding of how our consumption patterns in the North are related to and affect what is happening in the South.


12.1 Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries.

12.2 By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources.

12.3 By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses.

12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment.

12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse.

12.6 Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle.

12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities.

12.8 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature.

12.a Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production.

12.b Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products.

12.c Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities.