A call to uphold the principles of the DAC Recommendation on Enabling Civil Society

April 29, 2024

To: Carsten Staur, Development Assistance Committee (DAC) Chair

Pia Hänni, Co-chair, DAC Community of Practice on Civil Society,
Head of Swiss NGO Section, Division Multilateral Affairs and Swiss NGOs, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
Caro Krijger, Co-chair, DAC Community of Practice on Civil Society, Head Civil Society Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Netherlands
DAC Members in the DAC Community of Practice on Civil Society

A call to uphold the principles of the DAC Recommendation on Enabling Civil Society

As organizations deeply committed to the implementation of the DAC Recommendation on Enabling Civil Society, we are writing to the DAC and its Community of Practice with alarm about the nature of recent decisions in Sweden that will seriously affect its support for civil society, the quality of these relationships, and access to resources of organisations from more than 90 countries. Many DAC members, including Sweden, played crucial and constructive roles in developing and agreeing to a comprehensive Recommendation. The Recommendation addresses long-standing and critical issues in strengthening all civil society as development actors in their own right and in holding governments to account.

While we recognize that all adherents face challenges in implementing the Recommendation’s 28 key principles and commitments, we are gravely concerned by the signals arising from the abrupt decisions taken in the last month in Sweden, which dramatically affect the following key commitments:

Meaningful and inclusive consultation and due diligence
Among the important goals embedded in the Recommendation is the central role of full and inclusive consultation with civil society in establishing policies or strategies for working with civil society “in both partner countries or territories and provider countries” [Pillar Two, §1]. On March 15, the 17 strategic partner organizations (SPOs) received the abrupt announcement that by December 31st all Sida agreements will be terminated, with no prior consultation.

This decision severely affects current and future programming by more than 1,750 civil society organizations in 90 countries, who had no opportunity to engage with Sida in this decision. These organizations across the global south have been working with marginalized populations in countries where civic space is already challenging and often very constrained. There is no evidence that Sida undertook even minimal due diligence or consultation to determine the impact of its March decision on these organizations and their constituencies. Those who have trusted in their Swedish partners and Sida ́s consistent and responsive support for many years now face a highly uncertain future at best, in very difficult partner country contexts.

Flexible and predictable programmatic and core support
Adherents to the Recommendation have committed to work through funding modalities for civil society that are “flexible and predictable support, core support and/or programmatic support” [Pillar Two, §3]. Sida has the very unrealistic and unworkable expectation that organizations, from both Sweden and the global south, will now be able to create concept notes or letters of interest for an expected call-for-proposals as early as May, for which at the time of writing there is no information as to the terms, conditions and scope of such proposals. Such a narrow window for alternative funding is deeply disrespectful, to say the least, of the programmatic integrity of CSOs, as development actors in their own right, and for the necessary consultations and engagement with their constituencies and counterparts.

Investing in leadership of local civil society in partner countries
All adherents to the Recommendation shall “promote and invest in the leadership of local civil society in partner countries.” [Pillar Two, §4] While recognizing that a lot of work remains to be done in complex realities for civil society, CSOs in the global south and the global north have been pro-actively engaged in actions that strengthen southern civil society leadership, working towards power shifts within equitable and complementary CSO partnerships, and supporting substantial and meaningful access for direct provider funding for southern CSOs. These are complex processes requiring a stronger commitment to change on the part of civil society, north and south, as well as on the part of provider terms and conditions for funding.

Enabling equitable partnerships
In indicating that all contracts with the 17 Strategic Partner Organizations (SPOs) under the civil society strategy will be terminated, Sida has provided no information on its changing priorities for supporting civil society and the appropriate modalities of support to do so. The Community of Practice’s work on good practice (i.e. the Toolkit on Shifting Power within Partnerships) points to the importance of creating diverse provider funding modalities that enable powershifts and incentivize more equitable partnerships, but also respond to the different and often complex realities within which CSOs work in the global south.

In all provider contexts, including Sweden, significantly increased opportunities for direct support for CSOs in the global south is an essential part of a positive change in funding modalities, with conditions determined through consultation. At the same time, national CSOs in provider countries and/or international CSOs remain essential civil society actors working through specific mutually supportive relationships with partner country CSOs that are formed around shared long term strategic goals, often in very difficult environments.

In fact, Sida’s 2023 Guideline for the Strategic Partner Organizations were recently highlighted by the DAC Community of Practice as a good practice example in responding to these complexities as convenors, connectors, fiscal agents and amplifiers of development issues, while strengthening local ownership and leadership. But these relationships must also be subject to continued and collaborative re-examination of roles, which can call for deep reforms in CSO practices. Sida’s March decision provides no opportunity to do so.

Do no harm
Finally, it is not clear how Sida will effectively and efficiently manage the movement of sub- contracting from the 17 Strategic Partner Organizations into its direct administrative mandate in a matter of months. We understand these management issues are currently under review, but seemingly an abrupt decision was made irrespective of the outcome for Sida’s organizational capacities and its impact on partners and support for civil society going forward.

Importantly, the DAC Recommendation calls on all adherents to take “reasonable steps to do no harm to civic space in partner countries or territories.” [Pillar One, §4] It seems clear that these precipitate actions by Sida will in fact have a significant negative impact on civic space in a range of countries. There is ample evidence from other contexts – including the UK and Canada – of abrupt funding cuts and decisions adversely affecting the lives of those in need.

Upholding the development effectiveness principles
Sweden is currently in a leadership role as a co-chair for the Global Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation. It has a special responsibility to promote the Partnership’s four development effectiveness principles, not least the essential principle of strengthening local ownership. But equally important are the principles of working through inclusive partnerships and ensuring effective mutual accountability and transparency.

As long-standing friends of Sweden’s development cooperation and its leadership and commitment to enabling civil society, we are deeply concerned that the nature of the decisions of the past month will ultimately undermine leadership by civil society across the global south, disable critical north/south relationships of solidarity, and ignore decades of important collaboration, experiences and knowledge in civil society both north and south.

In conclusion, we encourage all adherents to the Recommendation to take on board all the inter-related commitments in the Recommendation’s three Pillars when undertaking reform in their civil society policies and practices, and to do so in close collaboration with all affected CSOs, north and south.


1. 11.11.11, Belgium
2. A 11 – Initiative for Economic and Social Rights, Serbia
3. ABF BUSOVAČA, Bosnia and Herzegovina
4. Accountable Now, Global Network
5. ACODEV, Belgium
6. APCOB, Bolivia
7. ACT Alliance, Global Network
8. ACTing Together Program, Guatemala
9. Action, Gouvernance, Intégration,Renforcement, Groupe de travail en Santé et Développement en abrégé (AGIR/SD), Burkina Faso
10. Adad Malore, Albania
11. ADEL Morazán, El Salvador
12. ADIC, Sri Lanka
13. Advocates for Social Change Kenya, Kenya
14. African Institute of Corporate Citizenship, Malawi
15. Afrikagrupperna, Sweden
16. AGIMS, Guatemala
17. Agora Centre, Bosnia and Herzegovina
18. AidWatch Canada
19. AKÜ, Estonia
20. All Africa Conference of Churches, Regional
21. Alianza Politica Sector de Mujeres, APSM, Guatemala
22. Alliance Sud, Switzerland
23. Ambrela – Platform for Development Organisations, Slovakia
24. AMSATI, El Salvador
25. Applied Research Institute ARIJ, West Bank
26. Artikel2, Sweden
27. Associação Civil Alternativa Terrazul, Brasil
28. Associação Civil Escola Sem Muros Grupo Eco – Favela Santa Marta – Rio de Janeiro – Brazil
29. Asociación de Cooperación para el Desarrollo Rural de Occidente, CDRO, Guatemala
30. Asociación para el Desarrollo Integral de las Víctimas de la Violencia en las Verapaces Maya Achi (ADIVIMA), Guatemala
31. Asociación Coordinadora de Comunidades Afectadas por la Construccción de la Hidroeléctrica Chixoy (COCAHICH), Guatemala
33. Asociación de Culturas Originarias Suma Kawsay – Peru
34. Asociación de Investigación y Especialización sobre Temas Iberoamericanos (AIETI), Spain
36. Asociación de Mujeres Ixqanil, Guatemala
37. Asociación por la Paz y los Derechos Humanos Taula per Mèxic, Spain
38. Association Tin Tua du Burkina Faso, Burkina Faso
39. Association des Blogueurs du Burkina, Burkina Faso
40. Association Monde Rural (AMR), Burkina Faso
41. Association Nationale d Action pour Développement Intégral (ANADI), Senegal
42. Association “Nova generacija,” Bosnia and Herzegovina
43. Australian Council for International Development, Australia
44. Bahay Tuluyan Foundation, Philippines
45. Bangladesh Legal Aid and Services Trust (BLAST), Bangladesh
46. Bangladesh Resource Centre for Indigenous Knowledge (BARCIK), Bangladesh
47. Belarusian National Youth Council (RADA), Belarus
48. Bench Marks Foundation, South Africa
49. Bangladesh Legal Aid and Services Trust (BLAST), Bangladesh
50. Bond, CSO Platform, United Kingdom
51. Broederlijk Delen, Belgium
52. Brot für die Welt, Germany
53. Building Community Voice (BCV), Cambodia
54. Cambodian Center for Human Right (CCHR), Cambodia
55. Cambodian Journalists Alliance Association (Cambo-JA), Cambodia
56. Cambodian League for the Promotion and Defense of Human Rights (LICADHO), Cambodia
57. Censat Agua Viva (Friends of Earth), Colombia
58. Center for Alliance of Labor and Human Rights (CENTRAL), Cambodia
59. Center for Civic Cooperation, Bosnia and Herzegovina
60. Center for Democratic Governance (CDG), Burkina Faso
61. Center for Youth Advocacy and Networking (CYAN Pilipinas Inc), Philippines
62. Center for youth education, Bosnia and Herzegovina
63. Centre d’Etudes et de Recherche Appliquée en Finances Publiques (CERA/FP), Burkina Faso
64. Centre Delwende de Sakoula, Burkina Faso
65. Centre for Environmental Justice, Sri Lanka
66. Centre for Improved Rural Health and Environmental Protection (CIRHEP), India
67. Center for Migrant Advocacy, Philippines
68. Centre Internacional Escarré per les Minories Ètniques i les Nacions (CIEMEN), Catalonia
69. Centre for Research and Advocacy, Manipur, India
70. Center for Support Organisations, Bosnia and Herzegovina
71. Centre for Youth Work, Serbia
72. Centro de Defesa dos Direitos Humanos, Brasil
73. Centro de Desarrollo Agropecuario (CEDAP), Peru
74. Centro de Estudios para el Desarrollo Regional (CEDER), Perú
75. Centro de Tecnologias Alternativas Populares – CETAP, Passo Fundo Rio Grande do Sul – Brazil
76. Centro Ecológico, Brazil
77. Centro de Estudios e Investigación sobre Mujeres (CEIM), Spain
78. CEHPRODEC, Honduras
79. Civil Society Budget Advocacy Group (CSBAG), Uganda
80. Civil Society Platform for Peacebuilding and Statebuilding (CSPPS), Netherlands
81. Civil Society Reference Group, Kenya
82. Christian Aid, United Kingdom
83. CIUDADANIA, Bolivia
84. Clean Clothes Campaign International Office, Netherlands
85. Clowns without Borders Sweden, Sweden
86. CNCD-11.11.11, Belgium
87. Colors Rainbow, Myanmar
89. Commerce and Services Trade Union, Bosnia and Herzegovina
90. Committee for Free and Fair Elections in Cambodia (COMFREL), Cambodia
91. Commission épiscopale Justice et Paix du Burkina Faso (CJP-Burkina), Burkina Faso
92. Community Development Support Services (CDSS), South Sudan
93. COMUNA/PBFCC, Bolivia
94. Comunidad de Juristas Akubadaura, Colombia
95. CONCORD, European CSO Platform
96. CONCORD Sweden
97. CONFRAS, El Salvador
98. Confederation of Autonomous Trade Unions of Serbia, Serbia
99. Confederation of Autonomous Trade Unions of Vojvodina, Serbia
100. Conseil national des organisation de la société civile du Burkina Faso (CNOSC/BF), Burkina Faso
101. Convention des Organisations de la société civile pour l’Observation Domestique des Élections (CODEL), Burkina Faso
102. Coop. Comunidad del Sur, Montevideo-Uruguay
103. Cooperation Committee for Cambodia (CCC), Cambodia
104. Cooperation Canada, CSO Platform, Canada
105. Coordinadora Galega de ONG para o Desenvolvemento, Spain
106. Coordinadora de ONGD de Castilla-La Mancha, Spain
107. Coordinadora de ONGD-España, Spain
108. Coordinadora Valenciana de ONGD, Spain
109. COPINH, Honduras
110. Cordaid, Netherlands
111. Corporación para el Desarrollo Regional, Colombia
112. Corporación Serraniagua, Organización Campesina Ambiental Comunitaria, El Cairo – Colombia
113. Council for People’s Development and Governance (CPDG), Philippines
114. Council of Churches, Zambia
115. Conseil National de la Jeunesse du Burkina Faso (CNJ-BF), Burkina Faso
116. Croatian Platform for International Citizen Solidarity (CROSOL), Croatia
117. Czech Forum for Development Cooperation (FoRS), Czechia
118. Nagorik Uddyog (NU), Bangladesh
119. David Ntseng Director at Church Land Programme, South Africa
120. DCA, Denmark
121. Democratic Dialogue Network, Serbia
122. Democratic Dialogue Network, Serbia
123. Diakonia, Sweden
124. Dóchas, Ireland
125. East Cape Agricultural Research Project, South Africa
126. Ecobarrial, Centro de Ecología Social, Chile
127. ECLOF International, Switzerland
128. Economic and Social Development Center ESDC, West Bank and Gaza Strip
129. ECPAT, Philippines
130. EducommuniK, Burkina Faso
131. Entrepueblos/Entrepobles/Entrepobos/Herriarte, Spain
132. Emthonjeni Women’s Forum, Zimbabwe
133. Equality Myanmar, Myanmar
134. Equitable Cambodia (EC), Cambodia
135. ERA-LGBTI Equal Rights Association, Serbia
136. ERIKS Development Partner, Sweden
137. Espacio de Cooperación para la Paz, Colombia
138. EU-LAT Advocacy Network, regional network Europe
139. Eurodad, Regional Network
140. Fairtrade Sverige, Sweden
141. Farmers Union of Malawi, Malawi
142. Fasocheck Association, Burkina Faso
143. FECCEG, Guatemala
144. FEDECARIBE, Colombia
145. Federación de Centros Awá del Ecuador, Ecuador
146. Felm, Finland
147. FESPAD, El Salvador
148. FIAN Zambia
149. Fundación San Alonso Rodríguez, FSAR, Honduras
150. FUNDASAL, El Salvador
151. Finn Church Aid, Finland
152. Finnish Development NGOs (Fingo), CSO Platform, Finland
153. Fishworkers’ Solidarity, Philippines
154. Friends of the Earth International, International Organization
155. ForumCiv, Sweden
156. Forum MNE, Montenegro
157. Forum of Cotton Producers, FONPA, Mozambique
158. Framtidsjorden, Sweden
159. Fundación ALTROPICO, Ecuador
160. Fundação CEPEMA, Brazil
161. Fundación de Culturas Indígenas Kawsay-Ecuador
162. Fundación InteRed, Spain
163. Fundación Myrna Mack, Guatemala
164. Fundación para el Desarrollo y Fortalecimiento de las Organizaciones de Base (FUNDEBASE), Guatemala
165. Fundación Pereyra, Argentina
166. Gender and Development for Cambodia (GADC), Cambodia
167. Global Citizen, International Organization
168. Global Idé, Sweden
169. Global Interfaith Network For People of All Sexes, Sexual Orientations, Gender Identities and
Expressions, South Africa
170. Grameena Mahila Okkuta, India
171. groundWork, Friends of the Earth, South Africa
172. HEKS/EPER Swiss Church Aid, Switzerland
173. IBON Foundation, Philippines
174. IBON International, International NGO
175. ICADE, Honduras
176. Iglesia Filipina Independiente, Philippines
177. Iniciativa Mesoamericana de Mujeres Defensoras de Derechos Humanos, regional Latin America
178. Institute for National and Democracy Studies (INDIES), Indonesia
179. Institute of Permaculture of Mozambique, IPERMO, Mozambique
180. Institute of Politics and Governance (IPG), Philippines
181. Instituto de Comunicación y Desarrollo (ICD), Uruguay
182. Instituto de Ecología Política, Chile
183. International Action for Peace (IAP), Spain
184. International Labour, Research and Information Group, South Africa
185. International Network Of Religious Leaders Living With or Personally Affected by HIV and AIDS (INERELA+), South Africa
186. International Office for Human Rights Action on Colombia, OIDHACO, European regional network
187. International Platform against Impunity, Guatemala
188. Inter Pares, Canada
189. IOGT-NTO Movement, Sweden
190. IPDRS, Bolivia
191. JA!FOE, Moçambique
192. JANIC, Japan
193. Jordens Vänner / Friends of the Earth Sweden, Sweden
194. Justapaz, Colombia
195. Justiça Ambiental, JA, Mozambique
196. KAMP, Kosovo
197. Kareem Baptist Convention- Social Mission (KBC- SM), Myanmar
198. Kawsay Bolivia
199. KCOC Policy Center, Korea
200. Keystone Foundation, India
201. Khanya College Johannesburg Trust, South Africa
202. Klahaan, Cambodia
203. KUDUMBAM, India
204. Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation, Sweden
205. La Coordinadora de ONGD-España
206. La Plataforma DESCA, Colombia
207. La Via Campesina Southern and Eastern Africa (LVC SEAf), Regional Organization
208. Law & Society Trust (LST), Sri Lanka
209. Lawyers Collective José Alvear Restrepo (CAJAR), Colombia
210. Labor Education and Research Network (LEARN), Philippines
211. Labour Resource and Research Institute (LaRRI), Namibia
212. Ladakh Ecological Development Group, India
213. Lafede.cat organitzacions per la Justícia Global, Catalonia
214. Land Research Center (LRC), West Bank
215. LatFem, Regional Latin America
216. Legal Assistance Centre, Namibia
217. Leornard Cheshire Disability, Zimbabwe
218. Le secrétariat permanent des organisations Non Gouvernementales du Burkina Faso, Burkina Faso
219. Listeners without Borders, Sweden
220. Livaningo, Mozambique
221. Lliga dels Drets dels Pobles, Catalunya, Spain
222. Lutheran World Federation, Switzerland
223. Lutheran World Federation / World Service – Central America Programme
224. Lutheran World Service India Trust, India
225. Malawi Union of Savings and Credit Cooperation (MUSCCO), Malawi
226. MECOOVISURH, Honduras
227. Milieudefensie / Friends of the Earth, Netherlands
228. Movimiento Agroecológico de América Latina, MAELA, regional Latin America
229. Mujeres Workers Progressive Alliance, Philippines
230. Murang’a Avocado Farmers Cooperative Union Ltd, Kenya
231. Muslim Women’s Research and Action Forum, Sri Lanka
232. MyRight, Sweden
233. National Association of Youth Organizations (NAYO), Zimbabwe
234. National Commission for Human Rights Chile-Sweden, Sweden
235. National Confederation of Transport Workers Union (NCTU), Philippines
236. National Council of Churches, Philippines
237. National council of Swedish children and youth organizations (LSU), Sweden
238. National Confederation of Transportworkers Union (NCTU), Philippines
239. National Farmers’ Federation NFF, North Macedonia
240. NGO Forum on Cambodia, Cambodia
241. ngo-federatie, the Flemish federation of development CSOs, Belgium
242. Nicaraguan Network of Community Trade (RENICC), Nicaragua
243. NIRMAN, India
244. NOAH Friends of the Earth, Denmark
245. Norwegian Church Aid (NCA), Norway
246. Olof Palmes Internationella Center, Sweden
247. Operation 1325, Sweden
248. Organic Producers & Processors Association of Zambia, Zambia
249. Organization for Nonviolence and Development (ONAD), South Sudan
250. Organization for Women’s Development in Bangladesh, Bangladesh
251. Organisation pour le Renforcement des Capacités de Développement, Burkina Faso
252. Oxfam, International CSO
253. Palestinian Agricultural Cooperative Union (PACU), West Bank
254. Palestinian Working Women Society for Development (PWWSD), West Bank
255. Palhaços Sem Fronteiras, Brasil
256. People’s Action for Free and Fair Elections, Sri Lanka
257. People’s Process on Housing and Poverty in Zambia (PPHPZ), Zambia
258. PIANGO, Pacific Region
259. Plan International, International CSO
260. Plataforma Colombiana de Derechos Humanos, Democracia y Desarrollo (PCDHDD), Colombia
261. PMU, Sweden
262. Portuguese NGDO Platform, Portugal
263. Positive Vibes, Namibia
264. Praktisk Solidaritet, Sweden
265. Promotion of Family Health Association, Laos
266. Pro Public, Nepal
267. Reality of Aid Africa Network, Regional Network
268. Reality of Aid – Asia Pacific, Regional Network
269. Red de ONGD de Madrid, Spain
270. Red Jesuita Con Migrantes de Centroamérica (RJM CA), Regional Network
272. Redes AT, Uruguay
273. Red de Trabajadoras Domésticas, Honduras
274. Rendir Cuentas, Latín America and the Caribbean, Regional Network
275. RFSL, Sweden
276. Ruta Pacífica de las Mujeres, Colombia
277. Safety and Rights Society (SRS), Bangladesh
278. Sahmakum Teang Tnaut (STT), Cambodia
279. Save a Life, Sri Lanka
280. Save the Children, International CSO
281. Schumacher Centre, India
282. Self Help Development Foundation, Zimbabwe
283. SIMCARRD, Philippines
284. SLOGA, Platform of Slovenian NGOs, Slovenia
285. Small Producers Development and Transporters Association (SPRODETA), Malawi
286. SOBREVIVENCIA, Amigos de la Tierra, Paraguay
287. Social Association for Rural Advancement (SARA), Bangladesh
288. Social Policy Initiative (SPI), South Africa
289. SOLIDAR, European CSO Network
290. Srushtidnyan, India
291. Students’ Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh, India
292. Suriya Women’s Development Centre, Sri Lanka
293. Svalorna Latinamerika, Sweden
294. Swallows India Bangladesh, Sweden
295. Swedish Association for Sexuality Education (RFSU), Sweden
296. Swedish Committee for Afghanistan, Sweden
297. Swedish Development Forum (FUF), Sweden
298. Swedish Fellowship of Reconciliation, Sweden
299. Swedish Foundation for Human Rights, Sweden
300. Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, Sweden
301. Synergie des Femmes de la Société Civile (SYFES), DRC
302. Training Education Development Extension Trust, India
303. Tzuk Kim-pop, Guatemala
304. Udayankur Seba Sangstha (USS), Bangladesh
305. Uganda Cooperative Savings and Credit Union (UCSCU), Uganda
306. Une Gruaja, Albania
307. Union for Development and Integration of Roma Minority in Albania “Amaro-Drom”, Albania
308. Union of Agricultural Work Committees (UAWC), West Bank and Gaza Strip
309. Unite Theatre for Social Action (UTSA), Bangladesh
310. Vikas Adhyayan Kendra, India
311. Vive Vene, Bosnia Herzegovina
312. Warande Advisory Centre, Kenya
313. Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA), Regional Organization
314. We Effect, Sweden
315. Wemos, The Netherlands
316. Women’s Academy For Leadership and Political Excellence (WALPE), Zimbabwe
317. Women’s Education and Research Centre (WERC), Sri Lanka
318. Women Empowerment – Action (WE-Action), Ethiopia
319. Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, Zimbabwe
320. Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, DR Congo
321. Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, Colombia
322. Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, Cameroon
323. Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, Sweden
324. Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom (International Secretariat), Geneva
325. Women’s Legal Resource Centre, Malawi
326. WoMIN African Alliance, Sweden
327. World Concern Myanmar, Myanmar
328. World Council of Churches, Switzerland
329. Youth Empowerment and Transformation Trust, Zimbabwe
330. YMCA, Ghana
331. YMCA, Madagascar
332. YWCA, Palestine
333. YMCA, Senegal
334. YWCA-YMCA, Sweden
335. YMCA, Togo
336. Zambia Alliance of Women (ZAW), Zambia
337. Zambia Climate Change Network (ZCCN), Zambia
338. Zambia Homeless and Poor People’s Federation, Zambia
339. Zambia National Women’s Lobby, Zambia
340. Zambia Youth Federation, Zambia